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Italy Italian : Italia [i?ta?lja] listen , officially the Italian Republic Italian: Repubblica Italiana [re?pub?lika ita?lja?na] , [1] [14] [15] [16] is a country consisting of a continental part , delimited by the Alps , a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe , [17] [18] and is also considered part of Western Europe. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland Campione and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters Lampedusa. With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean , Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures.

During the general election these three parties won out of seats available in the Chamber of Deputies and out of in the Senate. The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes.

The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest court in Italy for both criminal and civil appeal cases. The Constitutional Court of Italy Corte Costituzionale rules on the conformity of laws with the constitution and is a post-World War II innovation.

Since their appearance in the middle of the 19th century, Italian organised crime and criminal organisations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in Southern Italythe most notorious of which being the Sicilian Mafiawhich would later expand into some foreign countries including the United States. A report identified comuni which have a strong Mafia presence, where 1 million Italians live and These are relatively low figures among developed countries.

The Italian law enforcement system is complex, with multiple police forces. The Polizia di Stato are a civil police supervised by the Interior Ministrywhile the Carabinieri is a gendarmerie supervised by the Defense Ministry ; both share duties in law enforcement and the maintenance of public order. Italy is a founding member of the European Economic Community EECnow the European Union EUand of NATO. Its recent or upcoming turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe inthe G7 in and the EU Council from July to December Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Councilthe most recently in Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities.

As ofItaly was deploying 5, troops abroad, engaged in UN and NATO missions in 25 countries of the world. Italy deployed over 2, troops in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom OEF from February Italy supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilise Iraqbut it had withdrawn its military contingent of sometroops bymaintaining only humanitarian operators and other civilian personnel.

In August Italy deployed about 2, troops in Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL. The Italian ArmyNavyAir Force and Carabinieri collectively form the Italian Armed Forcesunder the command of the Supreme Defence Council, presided over by the President of Italy.

Sincemilitary service is voluntary. As part of NATO's nuclear sharing strategy Italy also hosts 90 United States B61 nuclear bombslocated in the Ghedi and Aviano air bases. The Italian Army is the national ground defence force, numberingin Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehiclethe Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tankand among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopterin the last years deployed in EU, NATO and UN missions.

It also has at its disposal many Leopard 1 and M armoured vehicles. The Italian Navy in had 5, active personnel with 85 commissioned ships and aircraft. In modern times the Italian Navy, being a member of the EU and NATO, has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations around the world.

The Italian Air Force in had a strength of 4, and operated aircraft, including combat jets and helicopters. A transport capability is guaranteed by a fleet of 27 CJs and CJ Spartan. An autonomous corps of the military, the Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, policing the military and civilian population alongside Italy's other police forces.

While the different brans of the Carabinieri report to separate ministries for each of their individual functions, the corps reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs when maintaining public order and security. Italy is constituted by 20 regions regioni -five of these regions having a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on additional matters, provinces province or metropolitan cities citta metropolitaneand 7, municipalities comuni.

Italy has a major advanced capitalist mixed economyranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world. The country is well known for its creative and innovative business, a large and competitive agricultural sector with the world's largest wine productionand for its influential and high-quality automobile, machinery, food, design and fashion industry. Italy is the world's sixth largest manufacturing country, characterised by a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size and many dynamic small and medium-sized enterprisesnotoriously clustered in several industrial districtswhich are the backbone of the Italian industry.

This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of ni market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products.

Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany The automotive industry is a significant part of the Italian manufacturing sector, with overfirms and almostemployed people inand a contribution of 8.

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Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

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Italy introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank. Italy has been hit hard by the Financial crisis ofthat exacerbated the country's structural problems. A gaping North-South divide is a major factor of socio-economic weakness. Italy has a strong cooperative sector, with the largest share of the population 4.

According to the last national agricultural census, there were 1. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures Italy is the world's largest wine producerand one of the leading in olive oilfruits applesolivesgrapesorangeslemonspearsapricotshazelnutspeasrriesplumsstrawberries and kiwifruitsand vegetables especially artichokes and tomatoes. The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and the Piedmontese Barolo. Other famous wines are BarbarescoBarbera d'AstiBrunello di MontalcinoFrascatiMontepulciano d'AbruzzoMorellino di Scansanoand the sparkling wines Franciacorta and Prosecco.

This geographical indication certificatewhich is attributed by the European Unionis considered important in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced ersatz products. In the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about Regarding the national road network, in there werekmmi of serviceable roads in Italy, including 6, km 4, mi of motorways, state-owned but privately operated by Atlantia.

Inabout 4, passenger cars cars per 1, people and 4, goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.

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The national railway networkstate-owned and operated by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana FSIin totalled 16, km 10, mi of which 11, km 7, mi is electrified, and on which 4, locomotives and railcars run. The main public operator of high-speed trains is Trenitaliapart of FSI.

Italy has 11 rail border crossings over the Alpine mountains with its neighbouring countries. Italy is one of the countries with the most vehicles per capita, with per people in Italy's largest airline is Alitaliawhich serves 97 destinations as of October and also operates a regional subsidiary under the Alitalia CityLiner brand. The country also has regional airlines such as Air Dolomitilow-cost carriers, and Charter and leisure carriers including NeosBlue Panorama Airlines and Poste Air Cargo.

Major Italian cargo operators are Alitalia Cargo and Cargolux Italia. In there were 4 major seaports, including the seaport of Genoathe country's largest and second largest in the Mediterranean Sea.

In Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of aboutunits and a merchant fleet of ships. Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply. The Galli Law, passed inaimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues.

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Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far from sufficient. Italy has been the final destination of the Silk Road for many centuries.

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In particular, the construction of the Suez Canal intensified sea trade with East Africa and Asia from the 19th century. Since the end of the Cold War and increasing European integration, the trade relations, which were often interrupted in the 20th century, have intensified again and the northern Italian ports such as the deep-water port of Trieste in the northernmost part of the Mediterranean with its extensive rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe are once again the destination of government subsidies and significant foreign investment.

Eniwith operations in 79 countries, is one of the seven " Supermajor " oil companies in the world, and one of the world's largest industrial companies. Moderate natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic Seahave been discovered in recent years and constitute the country's most important mineral resource.

Italy is one of the world's leading producers of pumicepozzolanaand feldspar. In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energyranking as the second largest producer in the European Union and the ninth in the world. Wind power, hydroelectricity, and geothermal power are also important sources of electricity in the country.

Renewable sources account for the Other examples of large PV plants in Italy are San Bellino Italy has managed four nuclear reactors until the s. However, nuclear power in Italy has been abandoned following a referendum in the wake of the rnobyl disaster in Soviet Ukraine. The national power company Enel operates several nuclear reactors in Spain, Slovakia and France, managing it to access nuclear power and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants without placing reactors on Italian territory.

Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences. During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci -Milangelo - and Leon Battista Alberti - made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering.

Galileo Galilei -a physicist, mathematician and astronomer, played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model. Other astronomers suchs as Giovanni Domenico Cassini - and Giovanni Schiaparelli - made many important discoveries about the Solar System.

In mathematics, Joseph Louis Lagrange born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, - was active before leaving Italy. Fibonacci c. Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world.

Physicist Enrico Fermi -a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory and was one of the key figures in the creation of the nuclear weapon.

He, Emilio G. Segre - who discovered the elements technetium and astatineand the antiprotonBruno Rossi - a pioneer in Cosmic Rays and X-ray astronomy and a number of Italian physicists were forced to leave Italy in the s by Fascist laws against Jews. Other prominent physicists include: Amedeo Avogadro most noted for his contributions to molecular theoryin particular the Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constantEvangelista Torricelli inventor of barometerAlessandro Volta inventor of electric batteryGuglielmo Marconi inventor of radioGalileo Ferraris and Antonio Pacinottipioneers of the induction motor, Alessandro Crutopioneer of light bulb and Innocenzo Manzettieclectic pioneer of auto and robotics, Ettore Majorana who discovered the Majorana fermionsCarlo Rubbia Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

Antonio Meucci is known for developing a voice-communication device which is often credited as the first telephone. In mistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in mistry in for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi- meson decay in Ennio de Giorgia Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient insolved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.

There are numerous technology parks in Italy such as the Science and Technology Parks Kilometro Rosso Bergamothe AREA Science Park TriesteThe VEGA-Venice Gateway for Science and Technology Veneziathe Toscana Life Sciences Sienathe Technology Park of Lodi Cluster Lodiand the Technology Park of Navacchio Pisa.

Trieste has the highest percentage of researrs in Europe in relation to the population. Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with a total of Italy is well known for its cultural and environmental tourist routes and is home to 55 UNESCO World Heritage Sitesthe most in the world. At the beginning ofItaly had 60, inhabitants.

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However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Po Valley that accounts for almost a half of the national population and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia are very sparsely populated. The population of Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian economic miracle of the -s.

High fertility and birth rates persisted until the s, after which they started to decline. The population rapidly aged ; byone in five Italians was over 65 years old, and the country currently has the fifth oldest population in the world, with a median age of From the late 19th century until the s Italy was a country of mass emigration. Between an the peak years of Italian diasporaapproximatelyItalians emigrated each year. Source:. InItaly had about 5.

The figures include more than half a million children born in Italy to foreign nationals second generation immigrants but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian citizenship; inaboutpeople became Italian citizens, compared toin Starting from the early s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants.

An equally important source of immigration is neighbouring North Africa in particular, MoroccoEgypt and Tunisiawith soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring.

Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific notably China and the Philippines and Latin America have been recorded.

The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in that there might have been half a million or more. Italy's official language is Italianas stated by the framework law no. Around the world there are an estimated 64 million native Italian speakers and another 21 million who use it as a second language.

Standardisation was further expanded in the s and s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian. Twelve "historical minority languages " minoranze linguisti stori are formally recognised: AlbanianCatalanGermanGreekSloveneCroatianFrenchFranco-ProvencalFriulianLadinOccitan and Sardinian.

Like France, Italy has signed the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languagesbut has not ratified it. Because of recent immigration, Italy has sizeable populations whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language. According to the Italian National Institute of StatisticsRomanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almostpeople speak Romanian as their first language Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic spoken by overpeople; Inthe proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was The Holy Seethe episcopal jurisdiction of Romecontains the central government of the Roman Catholic Church.

It is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Popewho is also the Bishop of Romewith which diplomatic relations can be maintained. Inminority Christian faiths in Italy included an estimated 1.

One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is JudaismJews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ.

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Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from other countries, notably Spain. Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths. There are more thanfollowers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70, Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country.

The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand.

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Donations are allowed to Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu communities; however, Islam remains excluded, since no Muslim communities have yet signed a concordat with the Italian state. Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen, and consists of five stages: kindergarten scuola dell'infanziaprimary school scuola primarialower secondary school scuola secondaria di primo gradoupper secondary school scuola secondaria di secondo grado and university universita.

Primary education lasts eight years. Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts.

Secondary education lasts for five years and includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the liceo prepares students for university studies with a classical or scientific curriculum, while the istituto tecnico and the Istituto professionale prepare pupils for vocational education. Inthe Italian secondary education was evaluated as slightly below the OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and mathematics results since ; however, a wide gap exists between northern schools, which performed significantly better than the national average among the best in the world in some subjectsand schools in the Souththat had much poorer results.

Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universitiesprivate universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schoolssuch as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionalewhich is organised under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis.

Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9. Life expectancy in Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy. In the decades following the unification of Italythe northern regions of the countryLombardyPiedmont and Liguria in particular, began a process of industrialization and economic development while the southern regions remained behind. Due to the growing economic and social gap, the southern question is beginning to be talked about The imbalance between North and South, which widened steadily in the first post-unification century, was reduced in the sixties and seventies also through the construction of public works, the implementation of agrarian and scholastic reforms, the expansion of industrialization and the improved living conditions of the population.

This convergence process was interrupted, however, in the s. A study by Censis attributes to the pervasive presence of criminal organizations an important role in the delay of Southern Italy, they estimate an annual loss of wealth of 2. Italy is considered one of the birthplaces of western civilization and a cultural superpower.

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a number of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects, artists and scholars, thus producing a great legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature. Despite the political and social isolation of these courts, Italy's contribution to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense. Italy has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites 55 than any other country in the world, and has rich collections of art, culture and literature from many periods.

The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora. Furthermore, Italy has, overall, an estimate monuments of any sort museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churs, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remainsand according to some estimates the nation is home to half the world's great art treasures.

Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, such as the construction of ars, domes and similar structures during ancient Romethe founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the lateth to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianisma style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architectureand influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.

Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Greeks and the Etruscans, progressing to classical Roman, then to the revival of the classical Roman era during the Renaissance and evolving into the Baroque era.

The Christian concept of a Basilica, a style of church architecture that came to dominate the early Middle Ages, was invented in Rome. They were known for being long, rectangular buildings, which were built in an almost ancient Roman style, often rich in mosaics and decorations.

The early Christians' art and architecture was also widely inspired by that of the pagan Romans; statues, mosaics and paintings decorated all their churs. Byzantine architecture was also widely diffused in Italy. The Byzantines kept Roman principles of architecture and art alive, and the most famous structure from this period is the Basilica of St.

Mark in Venice. The Romanesque movement, which went from approximately AD to AD, was one of the most fruitful and creative periods in Italian architecture, when several masterpieces, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa in the Piazza dei Miracoliand the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan were built. It was known for its usage of the Roman ars, stained glass windows, and also its curved columns which commonly featured in cloisters.

The main innovation of Italian Romanesque architecture was the vault, which had never been seen before in the history of Western architecture. The greatest flowering of Italian architecture took place during the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi made great contributions to architectural design with his dome for the Cathedral of Florence, a feat of engineering that had not been accomplished since antiquity. Peter's Basilica, originally designed by Donato Bramante in the early 16th century.

Also, Andrea Palladio influenced architects throughout western Europe with the villas and palaces he designed in the middle and late 16th century; the city of Vicenzawith its twenty-three buildings designed by Palladio, and twenty-four Palladian Villas of the Veneto are listed by UNESCO as part of a World Heritage Site named City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto.

The Baroque period produced several outstanding Italian architects in the 17th century, especially known for their churs. The most original work of all late Baroque and Rococo architecture is the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigidating back to the 18th century. In this large complex, the grandiose Baroque style interiors and gardens are opposed to a more sober building envelope.

Everything from villas, palaces, gardens, interiors and art began to be based on Roman and Greek themes. During the Fascist period, the so-called " Novecento movement " flourished, based on the rediscovery of imperial Rome, with figures such as Gio Ponti and Giovanni Muzio.

Marcello Piacentiniresponsible for the urban transformations of several cities in Italy and remembered for the disputed Via della Conciliazione in Rome, devised a form of simplified Neoclassicism. The history of Italian visual arts is significant to the history of Western painting. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting.

Roman painting does have its own unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campaniain Southern Italy. Such paintings can be grouped into four main "styles" or periods and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'?ilpseudo-perspective, and pure landscape. Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 1th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto.

From Giotto onwards, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. The two are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture. The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the midth centuries with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy. In Italy artists like Paolo UccelloFra AngelicoMasaccioPiero della FrancescaAndrea MantegnaFilippo LippiGiorgioneTintorettoSandro BotticelliLeonardo da VinciMilangelo BuonarrotiRaphaelGiovanni Belliniand Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspectivethe study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an uembracingmothers.comecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.

Milangelo was an active sculptor from about toand his great masterpieces including his Davi PietaMoses. Other prominent Renaissance sculptors include Lorenzo GhibertiLuca Della RobbiaDonatelloFilippo Brunelleschi and Andrea del Verrocchio. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt.

The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco.

In the 17th century, among the greatest painters of Italian Baroque are CaravaggioAnnibale CarracciArtemisia GentileschiMattia PretiCarlo Saraceni and Bartolomeo Manfredi. Subsequently, in the 18th century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists such as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto.

Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova 's nudes, on the idealist ct of the movement. In the 19th century, major Italian Romantic painters were Francesco HayezGiuseppe Bezzuoli and Francesco Podesti.

Impressionism was brought from France to Italy by the Macchiaioliled by Giovanni Fattoriand Giovanni Boldini ; Realism by Gioacchino Toma and Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo. In the 20th century, with Futurismprimarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo BallaItaly rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture.

Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chiricowho exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow like Bruno Caruso and Renato Guttuso. Formal Latin literature began in BC, when the first stage play was performed in Rome. The Romans were also famous for their oral tradition, poetry, drama and epigrams.

Francis of Assisi was considered the first Italian poet by literary critics, with his religious song Canticle of the Sun. Another Italian voice originated in Sicily. At the court of Emperor Frederick II, who ruled the Sicilian kingdom during the first half of the 1th century, lyrics modelled on Provencal forms and themes were written in a refined version of the local vernacular.

The most important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentiniinventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novoa school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love poetry.

This new understanding of love, expressed in a smooth, pure style, influenced Guido Cavalcanti and the Florentine poet Dante Alighieriwho established the basis of the modern Italian language ; his greatest work, the Divine Comedyis considered among the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages ; furthermore, the poet invented the difficult terza rima.

The two great writers of the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccacciosought out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own artistic personalities. Petrarch achieved fame through his collection of poems, Il Canzoniere. Petrarch's love poetry served as a model for centuries.

Equally influential was Boccaccio's The Decameronone of the most popular collections of short stories ever written. Italian Renaissance authors produced a number of important works. Niccolo Machiavelli 's The Prince is one of the world's most famous essays on political science and modern philosophy, in which the "effectual truth" is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal.

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Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto 's Orlando Furiosocontinuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo 's unfinished romance Orlando Innamoratois perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever written. Baldassare Castiglione 's dialogue The Book of the Courtier describes the ideal of the perfect court gentleman and of spiritual beauty. The lyric poet Torquato Tasso in Jerusalem Delivered wrote a Christian epic, making use of the ottava rimawith attention to the Aristotelian canons of unity.

Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basilewhich have written The Facetious Nights of Straparola - and the Pentamerone respectively, printed some of the first known versions of fairy tales in Europe.

The Baroque period also produced the clear scientific prose of Galileo as well as Tommaso Campanella 's The City of the Suna description of a perfect society ruled by a philosopher-priest. At the end of the 17th century, the Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio 's heroic melodramas.

In the 18th century, playwright Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many portraying the middle class of his day. The Romanticism coincided with some ideas of the Risorgimentothe patriotic movement that brought Italy political unity and freedom from foreign domination. Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early 19th century.

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The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio AlfieriUgo Foscoloand Giacomo Leopardi. The works by Alessandro Manzonithe leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language; his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language.

In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents.

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In the same period, Emilio Salgariwriter of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurismcalled for the use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and violence of the machine age. Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are Gabriele D'Annunzio from tonationalist poet Giosue Carducci inrealist writer Grazia Deledda inmodern theatre author Luigi Pirandello inshort stories writer Italo Calvino inpoets Salvatore Quasimodo in and Eugenio Montale inUmberto Eco inand satirist and theatre author Dario Fo in Over the ages, Italian philosophy and literature had a vast influence on Western philosophybeginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanismthe Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy.

Roman philosophers include CiceroLucretiusSeneca the YoungerMusonius RufusPlutarchEpictetusMarcus AureliusClement of AlexandriaSextus EmpiricusAlexander of AphrodisiasPlotinusPorphyryIamblichusAugustine of HippoPhiloponus of Alexandria and Boethius.

Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinasthe foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomismwho reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity.

Machiavelli's most famous work was The Princewhose contribution to the history of political thought is the fundamental break between political realism and political idealism. Italy also had a renowned philosophical movement in the s, with IdealismSensism and Empiricism. The main Sensist Italian philosophers were Melchiorre Gioja and Gian Domenico Romagnosi. During the late 19th and 20th centuries, there were also several other movements which gained some form of popularity in Italy, such as Ontologism whose main philosopher was Vincenzo Giobertianarchismcommunism, socialism, futurism, fascism and Christian democracy.

Giovanni Gentile and Benedetto Croce were two of the most significant 20th-century Idealist philosophers.

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Anarcho-communism first fully formed into its modern strain within the Italian section of the First International.

Italian philosophers were also influential in the development of the non-Marxist liberal socialism philosophy, including Carlo RosselliNorberto BobbioPiero Gobetti and Aldo Capitini. In the s, many Italian left-wing activists adopted the anti-authoritarian pro-working class leftist theories that would become known as autonomism and operaismo. Early and important Italian feminists include Sibilla AleramoAlaide Gualberta Beccariand Anna Maria Mozzonithough proto-feminist philosophies had previously been toud upon by earlier Italian writers such as Christine de PizanModerata Fonteand Lucrezia Marinella.

Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori is credited with the creation of the philosophy of education that bears her namean educational philosophy now practiced throughout the world. Recent analytic philosophers include Carlo PencoGloria OriggiPieranna Garavaso and Luciano Floridi. Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus 's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca.

L'italiana in Algeri (Italian pronunciation: [lita?lja?na in al?d???ri]; The Italian Girl in Algiers) is an operatic dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioachino Rossini to an Italian libretto by Angelo Anelli, based on his earlier text set by Luigi embracingmothers.com premiered at the Teatro San Benedetto in Venice on 22 May The music is characteristic of Rossini's style, remarkable for its Add a little tinted lip plumper for a cinnamon tingling sensation to instantly get a fuller-looking pout! Applies on clear and turns a slight shade of pink. This lip plumper moisturizes lips while giving the appearance of fuller lips Italy (Italian: Italia ), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [re?pub?lika ita?lja?na]), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe, and is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country

Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the rd century BCE had a profound and energising effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage. As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek.

For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripidesand many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander. During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatreand it is still performed today.

Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of jugglingacrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio.

Plays did not originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazziwhich were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise.

The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characterseach of which has a distinct costumesuch as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. The main categories of these characters include servants, old men, lovers, and captains. The first recorded Commedia dell'arte performances came from Rome as early asand was performed outdoors in temporary venues by professional actors who were costumed and masked, as opposed to commedia eruditawhich were written comedies, presented indoors by untrained and unmasked actors.

Commedia often performed inside in court theatres or halls, and also as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence. Flaminio Scala, who had been a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century, really in an effort to legitimize the form-and ensure its legacy.

These scenari are highly structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zannivecchiinamorate and inamoratiamong others. In commedia dell'artefemale roles were played by women, documented as early as the s, making them the first known professional actresses in Europe since antiquity.

Lucrezia Di Sienawhose name is on a contract of actors from 10 Octoberhas been referred to as the first Italian actress known by name, with Vincenza Armani and Barbara Flaminia as the first primadonnas and the first well documented actresses in Europe. The Ballet dance genre also originated in Italy. It began during the Italian Renaissance court as an outgrowth of court pageantry, where aristocratic weddings were lavish celebrations.

Court musicians and dancers collaborated to provide elaborate entertainment for them. Along with his students, Antonio Cornazzano and Guglielmo Ebreohe was trained in dance and responsible for teaching nobles the art. Da Piacenza left one work: De arte saltandi et choreus ducendi On the art of dancing and conducting danceswhich was put together by his students.

At first, ballets were woven in to the midst of an opera to allow the audience a moment of relief from the dramatic intensity. By the mid-seventeenth century, Italian ballets in their entirety were performed in between the acts of an opera. Over time, Italian ballets became a more beloved and important part of theatrical life: ballet companies in Italy's major opera houses employed an average of four to twelve dancers; in many companies employed anywhere from eighty to one hundred dancers.

Carlo Goldoniwho wrote a few scenarios starting insuperseded the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviours. He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before.

Italian theatre has been active in producing contemporary European work and in staging important revivals, including the works of Luigi Pirandello and Dario Fo. The Teatro di San Carlo in Naples is the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world, opening indecades before both the Milan's La Scala and Venice's La Fenice theatres.

From folk music to classicalmusic has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphonyconcerto, and sonatacan trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music. Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers PalestrinaMonteverdi and Gesualdothe Baroque composers ScarlattiCorelli and Vivaldithe Classical composers PaisielloPaganini and Rossiniand the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini.

Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the worl and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano PavarottiItalians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.

Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico Caruso and Alessandro Bonci.

Introduced in the early s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime.

Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily.

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Later, Italy was at the forefront of the progressive rock and pop movement of the s, with bands like PFMBanco del Mutuo SoccorsoLe OrmeGoblinand Pooh. In the early s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti. Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic musicwith Italo discoknown for its futuristic sound and prominent use of synthesisers and drum machinesbeing one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco.

Some bands of this genre are Black BoxEast Side Beatand 49ers. By the latter half of the s, a subgenre of Eurodance known as Italo dance emerged. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders.

Notable Italian DJs and remixers include Gabry Ponte member of the group Eiffel 65Benny BenassiGigi D'Agostinoand the trio Tacabro. Producers such as Giorgio Moroderwho won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music.

The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumiere brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The first Italian film was a few seconds, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera. The Italian film industry was born between and with three companies: the Societa Italiana Cinesthe Ambrosio Film and the Itala Film.

Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies read a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. Cinema was later used by Benito Mussoliniwho founded Rome's renowned Cinecitta studio for the production of Fascist propaganda until World War II.

After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s. Notable Italian film directors from this period include Vittorio De SicaFederico FelliniSergio LeonePier Paolo PasoliniLuchino ViscontiMilangelo Antonioni and Roberto Rossellini ; some of these are recognised among the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.

The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist filmsreflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy. As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genressuch as sword-and-sandal followed as Spaghetti Westernswere popular in the s and s. Actresses such as Sophia LorenGiulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallosproduced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide.

In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful directed by Roberto BenigniIl Postino: The Postman with Massimo Troisi and The Great Beauty directed by Paolo Sorrentino.

The aforementioned Cinecitta studio is today the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where many of the biggest box office hits are filmed, and one of the biggest production communities in the world.

In the s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed " Hollywood on the Tiber ". More thanproductions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features such as Roman HolidayBen-HurCleopatraRomeo and JulietThe English PatientThe Passion of the Christand Gangs of New York.

Speaking, a n a l girl italia this remarkable phrase

Italy is the most awarded country at the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Filmwith 14 awards won, Special Awards and 1 nominations. As ofItalian films have also won 12 Palmes d'Or the second-most of any country11 Golden Lions and 7 Golden Bears. The most popular sport in Italy is football.

Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and is followed by millions of fans around the world. Other popular team sports in Italy include basketballvolleyball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best. The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasketas well as silver at the Olympics in Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe.

Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy's national team competes in the Six Nations Championshipand is a regular at the Rugby World Cup.

Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. Mustafa comes in to explain Lindoro's impending marriage.

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The enthusiastic Bey describes the attractions of the match, while Lindoro struggles to refuse Se inclinassi a prender moglie. A ship has been wrecked in a storm. Its passengers include Isabella, in search of Lindoro, and Taddeo, her travelling companion and would-be lover.

Isabella enters with a sorrowful cavatina Cruda sorte! Amor tiranno! Haly and his men take them prisoner. She passes off Taddeo as her uncle. Haly is delighted to learn she is an Italian - exactly what the Bey wanted! Left to consider their fate, Isabella is irritated by Taddeo's jealousy of Lindoro Ai capricci della sortebut they resolve to join forces.

Back in the palace, Lindoro and Elvira do not wish to marry, but Mustafa offers Lindoro passage on a ship returning to Italy if he takes Elvira. Lindoro agrees, admitting a vague possibility of marrying her in Italy. Haly enters with news of the arrival of the Italian beauty.

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Mustafa is elated Gia d'insolito ardore nel petto agitare. Surrounded by eunuchs Viva, viva il flagel delle donneMustafa receives Isabella in a grand hall. He is enchanted, though she is rather amused by his appearance Oh! muso, figura! At that moment, Lindoro, Elvira and Zulma arrive to say goodbye to Mustafa Pria di dividerci da voi, Signore. Lindoro and Isabella are astonished to come face to face.

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Recovering herself, Isabella asks about Elvira, learning she is Mustafa's ex-wife, to be remarried to Lindoro! The act ends with an ensemble of confusion Confusi e stupidi. Elvira and Zulma who have remained in Algiers after all note Isabella's skill with men.

Mustafa reveals his strategy for seducing Isabella: he installs Lindoro as Isabella's servant and his informer, and Taddeo will also be induced to help. Elvira and Zulma must tell Isabella he is coming to take coffee with her.

Isabella and Lindoro are alone. He explains that he had no intention of marrying Elvira. They agree to escape together and Lindoro sings of his happiness Ah come il cor di giubilo.

Mustafa enters with a reluctant Taddeo, acclaimed by the Turks as "Lord Kaimakan" Viva il grande Kaimakan. He dislikes interceding with Isabella for the Bey, but is frightened to refuse Ho un gran peso sulla testa. Isabella is dressing in Turkish style. Zulma and Elvira deliver Mustafa's message: he is coming for coffee. Isabella orders three cups. Elvira should wait in a side room. As Mustafa approas, Isabella sings a romantic cavatina, Per lui adoro - she will receive him.

Mustafa tells Taddeo to leave when he sneezes Ti presento di mia man. Isabella greets Mustafa warmly and he sneezes, but Taddeo ignores the signal.

Isabella calls for coffee and then - to Mustafa's horror and amazement - invites Elvira to join them. Haly sings in praise of the women of Italy Le femmine d'Italia. The Italians enter, and Taddeo reveals to a surprised Lindoro that he is not her uncle but her lover he himself is unaware of the other man's true identity.

Lindoro tells Mustafa that Isabella will declare him her adored pappataci literally a "silent eater": a man unable to resist the opposite sex. This, as Lindoro explains Pappataci! mai sento! Zulma and Haly speculate about Isabella's real intentions and the quantity of alcohol ordered for the ceremony. She addresses the Italian slaves who will be pappataci in the ceremony - she will lead them to freedom Pensa alla patria. The ceremony begins Dei pappataci s'avanza il coro ; Mustafa is delighted with his new honour and changes into appropriate costume.

Isabella explains his obligations. He must swear an oath of eating, drinking, and keeping silent, repeating the words after Taddeo. Following that his oath is tested, under provocation by Isabella and Lindoro. A European ship lies alongside the palace: time to escape! Taddeo finally realizes who Lindoro is, but decides to go along with them anyway.

Elvira, Zulma and Haly find the Bey still acting as a mad pappataci. Suddenly recovering his sanity, Mustafa calls his troops but they are all drunk. The Italians bid farewell and Mustafa begs Elvira's forgiveness.

No more Italian girls for him! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. L'italiana in Algeri Dramma giocoso by Gioachino Rossini Portrait of the composer. Preface to the complete Ricordi Edition. Fondazione Rossini Pesaro, ISBN There are still further sporadic examples of assignment to the tenor voice type, such as nineteenth century editions of the libretto see: Milan, Ricordi, sd.

Moreover, Giuseppe Spirito, the first performer of Haly, had already created the role of Frontino in L'equivoco stravagantewhich is usually considered to be an unquestioned tenor part. Gioachino Rossini. List of compositions List of operas. Ivanhoe Robert Bruce Messa di Gloria Stabat materPetite messe solennelle ,

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