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The Ohio State University. A new study suggests that a million or more European Christians were enslaved by Muslims in North Africa between and - a far greater number than had ever been estimated before. Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or at most in the tens of thousands. Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1 million and 1. But when you take a broader, longer view, the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear.

Davis said it is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas. Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger - about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas.

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But from towhen trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis. During the time period Davis studied, it was religion and ethnicity, as much as race, that determined who became slaves.

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Pirates called corsairs from cities along the Barbary Coast in north Africa - cities such as Tunis and Algiers - would raid ships in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as well as seaside villages to capture men, women and children.

The impact of these attacks were devastating - France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and long strets of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants.

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At its peak, the destruction and depopulation of some areas probably exceeded what European slavers would later inflict on the African interior. Although hundreds of thousands of Christian slaves were taken from Mediterranean countries, Davis noted, the effects of Muslim slave raids was felt much further away: it appears, for example, that through most of the 17th century the English lost at least sailors a year to the slavers.

Even Americans were not immune.

Jan 21,   The white slaves were treated the same or worse than the black slave. The white slave did not fetch a good price at the auction blocks. Bridenbaugh wrote in his accounting on page , that having paid a bigger price for the Negro, the planters treated the black better than they did their " Christian " white servant 1 day ago  Without urgent intervention in Yemen this year, we risk losing a child every 75 seconds." Historical Amnesia About Slavery Is a Tool of White Supremacy Mychal Denzel Smith Twitter Ana Gallum, also called Nansi Wiggins (fl. ), was an African Senegalese slave who was freed and married the white Florida planter Don Joseph "Job" Wiggins, in succeeding in having his will, leaving her his plantation and slaves, recognized as legal. Horatio Gates (-), American general during the American Revolutionary War

For example, one American slave reported that other American seamen had been enslaved by the Algerians in the Mediterranean and Atlantic just between and Many of the countries that were victims of slavery, such as France and Spain, would later conquer and colonize the areas of North Africa where their citizens were once held as slaves. Davis said another reason that Mediterranean slavery has been ignored or minimized has been that there have not been good estimates of the total number of people enslaved.

People of the time - both Europeans and the Barbary Coast slave owners - did not keep detailed, trustworthy records of the number of slaves. In contrast, there are extensive records that document the number of Africans brought to the Americas as slaves.

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So Davis developed a new methodology to come up with reasonable estimates of the number of slaves along the Barbary Coast. Davis found the best records available indicating how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time.

He then estimated how many new slaves it would take to replace slaves as they died, escaped or were ransomed. Putting together such sources of attrition as deaths, escapes, ransomings, and conversions, Davis calculated that about one-fourth of slaves had to be replaced each year to keep the slave population stable, as it apparently was between and That meant about 8, new slaves had to be captured each year.

Mar 07,   Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger - about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas. But from to , when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis Mar 12,   "Ohio State University history Professor Robert Davis describes the White Slave Trade as minimized by most modern historians in his book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, -Davis estimates that 1 million to million Europeans were enslaved in North Africa, from the beginning of the 16th century to the middle of Jun 1,   Slavery in America, typically associated with blacks from Africa, was an enterprise that began with the shipping of more than , white Britons to the colonies. This little known history is fascinatingly recounted in White Cargo (New York University Press, ). Drawing on letters, diaries, ship manifests, court documents, and government archives, authors Don Jordan and Michael Walsh

Overall, this suggests nearly a million slaves would have been taken captive during this period. Using the same methodology, Davis has estimated as many asadditional slaves were taken in the previous and following centuries. The result is that between and there were almost certainly 1 million and quite possibly as many as 1.

From at leastthe pirates also conducted raids along seaside towns of Italy, Spain, France, England, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland, capturing men, women and children. On some occasions, settlements such as BaltimoreIreland were abandoned following the raid, only being resettled many years later.

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Between an England alone had merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. Those who had family or friends who might ransom them were held captive, the most famous of these was the author Miguel de Cervanteswho was held for almost five years.

Others were sold into various types of servitude. Captives who converted to Islam were generally freed, since enslavement of Muslims was prohibited; but this meant that they could never return to their native countries.

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It ended with the French conquest of Algeria These peoples were systematically preyed upon and turned into slaves, acquired by Barbary pirates during slave raids on ships and by raids on coastal towns from Italy to the Netherlandsas far north as Iceland and in the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. From Antiquity, European slaves were common during the reign of Ancient Rome and were prominent during the Ottoman Empire into the early modern period. In Feudalismthere were various forms of status below the Freeman that is known as Serfdom such as the bordarvilleinvagabond and slave which could be bought and sold as property and were subject to labor and branding by their owners or demense.

Under Muslim rulethe Arab slave trades that included Caucasian captives were often fueled by raids into European territories or were taken as children in the form of a blood tax from the families of citizens of conquered territories to serve the empire for a variety of functions. COLUMBUS, Ohio - A new study suggests that a million or more European Christians were enslaved by Muslims in North Africa between and - a far greater number than had ever been estimated before.

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Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or at most in the tens of thousands. Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1 million and 1.

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But when you take a broader, longer view, the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear. Davis said it is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas.

Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger - about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas.

consider, what

But from towhen trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis. During the time period Davis studied, it was religion and ethnicity, as much as race, that determined who became slaves.

Oman abolished slavery in , and Saudi Arabia and Yemen abolished slavery in under pressure from Britain. However, slavery claiming the sanction of Islam is documented at present in the predominantly Islamic countries of the Sahel, [20] [21] and is also practiced in territories controlled by Islamist rebel groups

Pirates called corsairs from cities along the Barbary Coast in north Africa - cities such as Tunis and Algiers - would raid ships in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as well as seaside villages to capture men, women and children.

The impact of these attacks were devastating - France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and long strets of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants.

At its peak, the destruction and depopulation of some areas probably exceeded what European slavers would later inflict on the African interior. Although hundreds of thousands of Christian slaves were taken from Mediterranean countries, Davis noted, the effects of Muslim slave raids was felt much further away: it appears, for example, that through most of the 17th century the English lost at least sailors a year to the slavers.

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Even Americans were not immune. For example, one American slave reported that other American seamen had been enslaved by the Algerians in the Mediterranean and Atlantic just between and Many of the countries that were victims of slavery, such as France and Spain, would later conquer and colonize the areas of North Africa where their citizens were once held as slaves.

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Davis said another reason that Mediterranean slavery has been ignored or minimized has been that there have not been good estimates of the total number of people enslaved. People of the time - both Europeans and the Barbary Coast slave owners - did not keep detailed, trustworthy records of the number of slaves.

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In contrast, there are extensive records that document the number of Africans brought to the Americas as slaves. So Davis developed a new methodology to come up with reasonable estimates of the number of slaves along the Barbary Coast. Davis found the best records available indicating how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time. He then estimated how many new slaves it would take to replace slaves as they died, escaped or were ransomed.



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